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The Russian Federation is the legal successor of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. Its area is 17,075,400 kilometers square; its population is 141.8 million. Its Constitution was adopted through a referendum on
December 12, 1993.

The head of the state is its President, elected by general elections for a four-year term. Dmitry Medvedev has been President of Russia since 2008. The legislative authority belongs to the bicameral parliament – the Federal Assembly. The members of the lower chamber – the State Duma – are elected through party lists. The members of the upper house – the Federation Council – are appointed by regional leaders and through legislative meetings.